Biotech molecules & compounds pipline CRO’s

7 year lookback

They don’t make compounds like they used to–or at least at the same rate. And with fewer and fewer early-stage molecules moving through pipelines, some discovery-focused CROs have been left in the lurch and healthcare is responding

The number of molecules coming down the pike has declined about 35% since 2008, said John Watson, chief commercial officer at Covance ($CVD), and it looks to remain about flat. Furthermore, Big Pharma, battered by costly development failures, has largely turned off the spigot and focused instead on late-stage candidates, he said.

“There was a day when small and emerging biotechs were putting forward two, three, four, 5 molecules; now they’re putting forward one,” Watson said. “There were decades when (Big Pharma’s) R&D spend grew 10% a year; now it’s flat to declining.”

That means CROs that used to count on early-phase business are having to get creative, and for Charles River Laboratories ($CRL), which specializes in preclinical services, the key to success in an evolving market is delivering consistent quality, Vice President Mike Luther said.

Over the past 25 years or so, drugmakers have slowly warmed up to outsourcing, Luther said, starting with Phase III and gradually expanding all the way to the earliest stages. “As that space has opened up, everybody hung a shingle out and said they were open for business, and what we saw over time was consolidation among the players that actually had the capacity,” Luther said.

That meant a lot of over-promising and under-delivering, he said, which, coupled with the aforementioned decline in newfangled drug candidates, left a lot of quick-to-expand CROs out in the cold, saddled with too much capacity and not enough demand.

Charles River, on the other hand, has spent its money expanding its expertise and honing its value proposition, Luther said, focusing on consistent quality to drive repeat business. And, at least in the short term, it seems to be working: Last quarter, Charles River posted $292.9 million in net revenue, a 2.9% year-over-year increase driven by driven by 2.6% growth in its preclinical services division.

For Covance, braving the change in preclinical demand has been a matter of getting its capacity in order, Watson said. Back in 2008, the CRO paid Eli Lilly ($LLY) $50 million for a 450-acre early drug development campus, an investment Covance figured would give it the heft it needed to capitalize on the exploding demand for outsourced discovery services.

That explosion never quite came to be, of course, and, over the past year, Covance has been paring down its early-phase spending and closing a few sites around the globe to adjust, all a matter of getting its footprint under control, Watson said.

“It’s a classic supply and demand issue,” he said. “Preclinical has a high fixed cost, and if you can get 65%, 70% capacity filled, you can make money in this business, but if you’re below that, you’re going to struggle.”

Now, after absorbing millions in restructuring costs, Covance is much better sized for the new market, Watson said. Last quarter, early-stage services generated $215 million in revenue, down 2.3% from the same period last year but up about 3.1% over Q1.

Growth in the company’s nutritional chemistry, clinical pharmacology and toxicology businesses has so far made up for a continued slump in discovery support and pharmaceutical chemistry services, and each of the units has its own market dynamics, Watson said. Moving forward, Covance expects early phase revenue to stay about flat, but the rise in biotech funding over the past three quarters is an encouraging sign for the future rate of molecule development.

For Charles River, having no late-phase business means it has to leverage its history and breadth of capabilities to cash in on that dwindling preclinical demand. But, as Big Pharma whittles its budgets and looks for more and more outsourcers, the CRO believes its investments and acquisitions will stand out and keep enticing partners.

“We’re not blind to the fact that we’re in an evolving marketplace, and we have to be adaptable and flexible,” Luther said. “… We have to keep our science relevant, and not just the science but the business model.”

Stem Cell Treatments for eyes and ocular conditions with cited research on over 100 conditions

Stemcells are all the buzz but for over a decade amniotic patches from the healthy birth of a consenting mother and child delivery have used or been used in the treatment of several modalities including but not limited to or currently in IRB;s or Research Studies for:

Chronic dry

Retina pigmentosa‘s

Ocular scratches


Medical Conditions Might Be Aided by MSC Exosomes, Stem Cells and Wharton Jelly derived form a health pregnancy after birth of a consenting mother.

  • Musculoskeletal – Joints, discs, muscles, bones, ligaments, tendons
  • Neurodegenerative – MS, Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, Huntington’s, ALS, Cerebellar Ataxia
  • CNS Injury/Trauma – CVA, CTE, TBI, SCI, Transverse Myelitis, Cerebellar Ataxia
  • Burns/Scars/Ulcers
  • Heart Disease – MI, Angina, CHF
  • Lung Disease – COPD, Pulmonary Fibrosis, Interstitial Lung Disease
  • Liver Disease
  • Kidney Disease
  • Inflammatory Bowel Disease – Ulcerative Colitis, Crohn’s
  • Alopecia or Hair Loss
  • Neuropathy/CIDP
  • Erectile Dysfunction
  • Urinary Incontinence
  • Peripheral Vascular Disease
  • Cerebral Palsy/Seizure Disorders/Autism
  • Numerous Aesthetic Applications
  • Depression/Bipolar Disorder
  • Drug Addiction
  • Type II Diabetes Mellitus
  • Aging

As most stem cells for treatment have not been approved by FDA the amniotic patch does have a CPT code 65778 for the placement of these patches on the ocular surface without sutures performed by a medical optometrist andIs indicated by your eye doctor. However a recent study shows 97% of Optometrist surveyed do not do medical treatments, so if you have one of the above conditions you will wanna find a medical optometrist who has advanced training and amniotic patches on the ocular surface.

There are several FDA registered tissue labs that make the amniotic patch for use for the above conditions but will need to be ordered by and approved in advanced training medical eye doctor.

Have a great day.  

icd 10 code for fatty liver

There are many CPT codes depending on your protocol and desired usage. FOr example CPT 65778 used for ocular would not be used for fatty liver.

Applicable To

  • Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)

Type 1 Excludes

  • nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) (K75.81)

The following code(s) above K76.0 contain annotation back-references that may be applicable to K76.0:

  • K00-K95  Diseases of the digestive system
  • K70-K77  Diseases of liver
  • K76  Other diseases of liver

Approximate Synonyms

  • Chronic hepatitis due to fatty liver
  • Fatty liver disease
  • Fatty liver disease, nonalcoholic
  • Hepatitis, chronic, due to fatty liver disease
  • Non-alcoholic fatty liver
  • Steatosis of liver

Clinical Information

  • A term referring to fatty replacement of the hepatic parenchyma which is not related to alcohol use.

ICD-10-CM K76.0 is grouped within Diagnostic Related Group(s) (MS-DRG v37.0):

  • 441 Disorders of liver except malignancy, cirrhosis or alcoholic hepatitis with mcc
  • 442 Disorders of liver except malignancy, cirrhosis or alcoholic hepatitis with cc
  • 443 Disorders of liver except malignancy, cirrhosis or alcoholic hepatitis without cc/mcc

Convert K76.0 to ICD-9-CM

What Is Chronic liver disease?

Chronic liver disease is a type of liver disease that involves progressive damage to the liver, leading to reduced liver function. There are a number of different potential causes of liver disease and symptoms that may be experience
d. While there is no cure, the condition can be managed by making lifestyle changes and monitoring for complications.. The most common cause of chronic liver disease is long term abuse of alcohol. Long term Hepatitis C infection is the second most common cause. Chronic liver
Check out the following website about non alcoholic fatty liver disease associated with breast cancer; There are lots of other good sites explaining the link between the 2. When your weight is back to ''normal'' you will be able to afford the odd indulgence but you will still need to be careful. Don''t go all out, otherwise you will likely feel poorly afterwards. Mexican should be OK maybe once a month but go for the rice and chicken and similar items, rather than nacho''s with heavy sauces and cheese. Votes:+0CommentVote upReport hope3111 Jul 2011 Quick questions

What Is a Diet for liver disease?

A diet for liver disease is an eating plan designed to help the liver work more effectively and with less effort. Everything a person eats is processed through the liver, so a proper diet is an important consideration for people with liver disease. The best foods to eat are foods that are rich in vitamin B, C, and E, and are high in antioxidants. The other important nutrients are complex carbohydrates and omega 3s. liver disease is a broad term that encompasses many diseases affecting the liver. In addition to processing food, the

What Is Polycystic liver disease?

Polycystic liver disease (PLD) causes the growth of a large number of cysts within the tissue of the liver. This inherited condition may only affect the liver, but in some cases those afflicted with PLD may also have cysts that grow in both the liver and the kidneys. PLD does not always affect the function of the liver, but in cases where it does the results can be disastrous.. During the progression os polycystic liver disease, the liver may become filled with many cysts; ultimately, these growths harden the normally soft liver tissue.

Does liver disease Cause Cramps?

Theoretically liver disease could cause cramps. Many times cramps are caused by abnormalities in electrolytes in your blood such as calcium, magnesium, or potassium. As the liver plays an important role in synthesizing various substances required for the body, advanced liver disease could lead to electrolyte abnormalities and thus cramps. liver disease typically causes abdominal pain, nausea, lack of interest in eating particularly of fatty foods, an increase in thirst and sweet tasting drinks. Chronic liver disease can cause muscle cramping.

My mom has liver disease and is in a nursing home. She is always sleepy and out of it. She is also taking 0.5 MG of Ativan. She also has high ammonia level in the blood. What is causing this? Kindly help.

One of the most important organs in the body, the liver produces bile which is needed for digestion of food. It also plays a vital role in the excretion of waste materials and toxic substances from the body and is responsible for producing cholesterol and proteins which help in repairing damaged tissues and building tissues. The storehouse of energy in the body, it has the unique capacity of regenerating itself and thus any kind of liver damage or liver disease can bring the body to a crisis situation. liver disease is most often caused by excessive and abusive consumption of alcohol. It can also be caused by prolonged consumption of...

What are the causes of liver disease?

The sauce Drinking excessive alcohol is a big cause, as is drugs. Then any type of action that causes you to have Hepatitis. This can be from gettting blood from a contaminated person in you (via a cut, using dirty needles, or having sex with a hepatitis carrier) This accounts for hepatitis B and C. However, hepatitis A can be caught from travelling for example to Asia or egypt....ask your doctor for more info on this. Other causes include Biliary obstruction, side effects of prescribed drugs, iron overload, and auto-immune disorder, or it could be a congenital disorder, ie malfomation of the liver that is genetic. beer beer and more beer Usually drinking, however we have a friend who got his from not drinking, or foods he ate but it happens because of his...

Does liver disease Cause Cramps?

Theoretically liver disease could cause cramps. Many times cramps are caused by abnormalities in electrolytes in your blood such as calcium, magnesium, or potassium. As the liver plays an important role in synthesizing various substances required for the body, advanced liver disease could lead to electrolyte abnormalities and thus cramps. liver disease typically causes abdominal pain, nausea, lack of interest in eating particularly of fatty foods, an increase in thirst and sweet tasting drinks. Chronic liver disease can cause muscle cramping. There is some evidence...

How Common Is liver disease In Dogs?

liver disease is quite common in dogs, especially in older dogs, and is often caused by the many toxins and medications to which dogs are exposed in day-to-day life. Canine liver disease is fairly common in older dogs. The causes are varied and many. Some symptoms are weight loss, decreased appetite, pale gums and sometimes a distended abdomen. Some causes are a genetic tendancy, poiisoning, and poor diet. liver disease happens for different reasons - genetics, health, or other contributing health problems. Your vet would be able to help you determine if your dog is at risk. liver disease is...

Top 10 Diets Plans for 2020

What Are Different Types of diet food Plans?

There are numerous diet food plans, each designed for specific needs and goals. diet food plans geared for weight loss typically consist of nutritionally balanced, low-calorie, and low-carbohydrate foods. diet food plans created to cleanse the body from toxic substances might include raw foods or detox diet food. Other various diet food plans are designed for the vegetarian or vegan diet, the whole foods diet

What Are Some High Protein diet foods?

There is a big difference between high protein diet foods and those foods that can be eaten on a high protein diet. The former refers to lower calorie foods that give a person plenty of protein. The latter generally means high protein foods, regardless of caloric content. This second group is part of diets that are not well regarded by the mainstream medical community, though some people swear by their results. Most doctors conclude a balanced diet with low calorie sources of protein is more healthful. Protein is extremely valuable to the body. It helps build lean muscle and increases

What Are the Different Types of diet foods?

Weight loss and weight control are two common concerns. One way that people try to achieve and maintain their goals in these areas is by eating diet foods. Many stores offer a wide range of selections for consumers who need such items. These include diet beverages, entrees, and sweeteners. When a person is interested in diet foods, she is generally interested in two things. She wants her food to be low in fat and low in calories. It may seem that this would be very restrictive, but in many instances people who eat diet foods can eat similar to how they ate before they made the choice to change

How Do I Choose the Best diet food Plan?

To choose the best diet food plan for you, carefully consider all of your options. Don''t opt for a general diet plan, but rather one tailored to your specific needs. For instance, if you have diabetes or another health condition, you must take that into consideration. Generally, healthy diet food plans contain balanced amounts of meats or alternate proteins, dairy foods, produce and grains, but if you''re allergic to certain foods or can''t digest them due to a health condition, you''ll have to substitute nutritious options. If you find that choosing healthy options is complicated, you may decide to work with

Are diet foods Good for Me?

I am not a fan of diet foods. Just eat smaller quantities at each meal if you want to lose weight. Choose foods that are lower in salt, fat and calories. Aspartame (Sweet N Low), aspartame (Nutrasweet), Splenda (chlorinated sugar), and other diet sweeteners are considered by many, including me, as harmful. You might also try food combining as outlined in the book Fit for Life. Digesting food better will lead to better assimilation and less fat storage. And keep in mind, excess calories consumed will be stored as fat if you don''t do adequate exercise. to be honest I am not a doctor so my answer is only based on heresay information.

diet food lists

Here is the list of diet foods that you can opt for. • Fruits and vegetables- There are several fruits such as apples, tangerines, oranges, grapefruits and acai berries that are excellent for losing weight. The foods are a very good option for staying healthy. Vegetables such as cauliflower, broccoli and beetroots are also good for healthy. • Nuts- Nuts are ideal for snack time and they are low on carbs. They are easy to digest and provide good energy. • Lean meat and fish- If you are a meat lover then you can opt for lean meat and fish as well. Fish is high on protein and they provide much needed energy during a workout regime. Olivia given good option for diet lis

Healthy diet foods?

Healthy diet foods have a variety of nutrients in different ratios. The best foods for a healthy diet should include a variety of food items which are high in proteins, fiber, essential vitamins and minerals. Some foods provide a high quantity of a particular nutrient, thus making it a good source of that nutrient

Are lean pockets a good diet food?

hell no No way. Lean pockets would turn you from being a hot chick to a fat chick. just eat vegetables with some meat (but not too much). nothing greasy. drink water. they have to many carbs..instead eat cottage cheese and a small cup of pineapple in its own juice Calorie wise, yes. Nutritionally, no. Fruits, vegetable and skinless chicken are your best choices on a diet. no lean pockets are o.k. only if you eat just 1. Also, teh best foods to eat on a diet is Sugar free Jello, Salads with NO croutons or cheese, no dressing. Just vinigerette dressings. No processed carbs. And, stay away from salty foods. Eat plenty of Lean meats and vegetables. I would have to say they are not good.

I need a diabetes diet food list.?

nuts, berries, twigs, bark.... LOL Eat high protien with good carbs like fruits, vegetables, and nuts. If you don''t want to eat red meats like beef and steaks, eat the leaner meats like fish, shrimp, chicken and turkey. Try the websites below. They should give you more detail. Then of course, you can always ask your doctor. The proper diet is critical to diabetes treatment. It can help someone with diabetes: Achieve and maintain desirable weight. Many people with diabetes can control their blood glucose by losing weight and keeping it off. Maintain normal blood glucose levels. Prevent heart and blood vessel diseases, conditions that tend to occur in people with.

Gaps diet food list?

What is a gaps diet? Oh! I just googled it and it says that there are several foods that are available in the gaps diet. The gaps diet is apparently a useful and well used diet. Many people around the world identify with the gaps diet. Some of the foods that are on the diet include yoghurt and kefir. the diet is does not include any extra ordinary foods and it is mainly made up of common foods that are ideal for losing weight. Moreover, it also depends on the age of the individual

rt pcr

RT-PCR, also known as Reverse Transcriptase PCR, is a variation of the polymerase chain reaction that typically measures RNA expression levels. In RT-PCR, complementary DNA (cDNA) is made by reverse transcribing of the RNA templates with the enzyme reverse transciptase. This technique is used to qualitatively study gene expression, and can be combined with real time PCR (qPCR) to quantify RNA levels. RT-PCR is used in research laboratories to study gene expression, for example in experiments to distinguish exons from introns, and can be used clinically to diagnose genetic diseases and monitor drug therapy. RT-PCR requires an RNA template, enzyme, nucleotides, buffers and thermocyclers to produce RT-PCR products. Kits are available to simplify and streamline the process. The technique can be complex as RNase, the enzyme that degrades RNA is ubiquitous, and the slightest DNA contamination can disrupt results. Fortunately products for RNase detection and decontamination are available. Look for RNase free consumables and reagents that contain RNase inhibitors and RNA stabilizers to ensure accurate and reliable RT-PCR.Real choices call 972-800-6670 for information

miracle compression socks

Product Description


CSX X200 MIRACLE SOCKS – Compression Sport Socks use 15-20 mmHg compression, and are designed to give athletes and active individuals the decisive edge in performance, injury reduction and recovery. Built with the greatest support at the ankle that reduces gradually up the leg, they work to reduce the diameter of the superficial veins in the lower leg and thus help improve blood flow. Improved flow can help protect, energize, and renew tired muscles.

  • 15-20 mmHg Graduated Compression
  • Extra Wide Self-Adjusting Top Band
  • V-Guard Shin Protection
  • Calf Cradle
  • Seamless Toe Box
  • Achilles Tendon Protection
  • Arch Support Band




Shockwave Therapy for Natural Treatment for Erectile Dysfunction

You don’t have to be a doctor with a diagnostic tool to know you have chronic pain – if it lasts longer than 12 weeks, it’s chronic.

Whether it’s degenerative or post-surgical, about 30% of Americans struggle with it, and many of them turn to highly addictive narcotic medication. Opioid drug overdose is now the leading cause of death for Americans under the age of 50. The other traditional treatment is surgery, which brings its own risks and doesn’t always offer long-term relief.

That’s why the regenerative specialists at RrrNU offer non-invasive shockwave therapy. This innovative evidence-based therapy applies externally generated pressure waves to pain-plagued tissue almost anywhere in the body.

Our pain experts deliver non-evasive, non-electrical high energy waves into injured body regions to break down scar tissue, increase circulationstimulate cell regeneration, and promote normal healing.

If you’ve had it with chronic pain and all the risky traditional treatments that haven’t provided long-term relief, try this regenerative solution by calling our highly-skilled, compassionate pain management specialists at 972-800-6670

 Schedule Free Consultation

How does Shockwave Therapy work?

Like an airplane breaking the sound barrier with a supersonic boom that can break car windows, shockwave therapy can shatter your painful scar tissue.

Like glass, scar tissue is non-elastic. It prevents normal movement and function, weakening surrounding normal tissue and causing further damage and pain.

Shockwave therapy functions like a controlled explosion. Low frequency acoustic shockwaves travel painlessly through damaged tissue where they:

  • exert pressure on stimulated cells
  • create interaction between free radicals and bio-molecules in those cells
  • increase blood circulation in the target area
  • break down fibrous scar tissue
  • decrease calcification
  • stimulate cell regeneration
  • reduce pain
  • improve muscle spasticity
  • restore normal motor function
  • enable quicker return to sports

Whether you’re struggling with orthopedic conditions, internal organ dysfunctions, or aesthetic concerns, shockwave therapy may help regenerate your damaged, scarred, or calcified tissue.

What conditions does Shockwave Therapy treat?

Because it functions on the cellular level, stimulating regeneration of tissues, bones, and organs shockwave therapy is useful for a wide range of conditions, some more clinically validated than others. These conditions fall into the following categories:

Orthopedic conditions:

Shockwave therapy treats bone fractures, Jumper’s knee, shoulder tendinitis, epicondylitis of the elbow and other orthopedic damage by activating mast cells which produce chemokines and cytokines that stimulate cell regeneration. A study published in the Journal of Orthopedic Surgery demonstrated shockwave therapy showed comparable functional outcomes as surgery, but without the risks. Only minor complications like redness, swelling and migraine headaches were observed.1

Vestibular conditions

Sound waves are applied to treat inner ear conditions like: dizziness, vertigo, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo imbalance, headaches, migraines, Meniere’s Syndrome, brain injury, and heavy impact falls.

Ischemic heart disease

Extracorporeal shockwave therapy serves a dual function while treating heart disease: first, shockwaves are delivered in synchronization with a patient’s R-wave to avoid arrhythmias, then ischemic areas are identified and treated with those shockwaves.

Urological conditions

The most common treatment for kidney stones in the US is shock wave lithotripsy, a technique

that passes high energy waves through stones in the kidney and ureter to break

them into pieces as small as grains of sand, which can pass through the urinary system.

Sexual health conditions:

Low energy acoustic waves can improve low penal blood flow, which is often the cause of erectile dysfunction, and can also break down the scar tissue and penal curvature caused by Peyronie’s Disease.

Aesthetic conditions:

Skillfully applied low-frequency sound waves can break up cellulite—the persistent subcutaneous fat causing skin dimpling on hips and thighs.

The Shockwave Therapy for Natural Treatment for Erectile Dysfunction procedure

Patients are usually sedated or anesthetized for the procedure to help them remain still and reduce possible discomfort.

Then, via a hand-held probe called a lithotripter, your sexual health practitioner will administer low-frequency sound waves, focusing the acoustic pulse to break up scar tissue cells and stimulate dormant cells with minimal damage.

It often takes 3 treatments to resolve the condition. We recommend you book 3 consecutive weekly sessions to gain the full benefits of Shockwave Therapy.

There are no known side effects of shockwave therapy. Occasionally, patients have experienced mild pain within a few hours of treatment that lasted 24 hours at most. Most patients experience pain reduction by that time.

Who is not a candidate for Shock Wave Therapy?

Although this therapy is regenerative, it may have harmful effects when administered in bodies that have increased sensitivities due to life stages or other conditions competing for immune response. Shock Wave Therapy may cause contraindications in:

  • patients under 18 years of age
  • patients with infections
  • pregnant women or women trying to conceive
  • patients with open growth plates or metal pins
  • patients with malignant tumors
  • patients with nerve or circulation disorders
  • patients taking anticoagulant medications

Reserve Your Appointment Today

Pain, lost range of movement, sexual dysfunction, or aesthetic discomfort don’t have to disrupt your life, sexual enjoyment, or self-esteem and drive you to high-risk, high-cost treatment options.

Come discover how our staff of discreet, compassionate professionals can help regenerate your functions cell-by-cell, with this innovative, non-invasive treatment. To speak with a shockwave therapy specialist today !

Sources: 1. Ching-Jen Wang. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy in musculoskeletal disorders. Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research 2012 7:11


Miracle socks

Miracle Socks Anti-fatigue Compression Socks

Miracle Socks use graduated compression, maximum at the ankle that gradually decreases up the leg, to soothe, massage and energize your legs and feet. Miracle Socks are comfortable and discreet, thin enough to fit in any shoe.

Easy to put on, great for everyday use. Miracle Socks help to reduce swelling, enhance circulation, relieve symptoms of varicose veins and soothe aching legs and feet. Unisex. Perfect for being on your feet or sitting all day and traveling! Available in black and white.

  • Graduated Compression – Improves circulation and helps reduce aches and swelling
  • Massages as You Move – To soothe tired, achy legs and feet
  • Vein Therapy – Helps relieve symptoms of spider and varicose veinsn.

New Options for Boomers with Foot and Ankle Arthritis

As they approach retirement, many members of the “Me Generation” aren’t ready to slow down, even if their bodies are. Foot and ankle surgeons say baby boomers are more likely than previous generations to seek care when arthritis develops in their toes, feet and ankles.


“Unlike their parents, baby boomers do not accept foot pain as a natural part of aging,” says John Giurini, DPM, a Boston foot and ankle surgeon and president of the 6,000-member American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons (ACFAS). “When conservative treatments fail, they want to know what other options exist.”
After they’re diagnosed, many boomers hold high expectations for treatment. They may look forward to playing sports or to running again. While there is no fountain of youth for a degenerative condition like arthritis, there are more medical options available than ever before.

The big toe joint is the most common part of the foot to develop osteoarthritis, according to For boomers with early-stage arthritis in this joint, modern surgical procedures may provide more pain relief and increased joint movement.
Boomers with advanced and severe arthritis may need to have the joint fused or replaced. Now, stronger screws and hardware are helping fusions last longer, while slashing recovery times. A new generation of big toe joint replacements also shows promise.
Ankles are another prime spot for arthritis. Innovative surgical techniques allow foot and ankle surgeons to transplant small plugs of cartilage from one part of the ankle to another in some patients, slowing joint deterioration.
Ankle replacements, however, are not as durable as hip and knee replacements. The ankle is a more challenging joint to replace. It’s smaller and moves in multiple directions. But better and promising ankle implants are hitting the market.

At, we have everything for your ankle.
For more information on osteoarthritis of the foot and ankle

Dry Eye Syndrome

Amniotic Membrane as a Remedy for Dry Eyes

If you have dry eyes, amniotic membrane may be the solution you’ve been waiting for.

How is your ocular health?

Ocular health is important! The eyes are important to enjoyment of life and mobility, but also are essential for our optimum performance at work. The term “ocular” refers to the eye and its organ system. Ocular health includes vision, and the health of eye, meaning whether they are disease free.

There are many things we all do to protect our eye health. We have regular eye exams discussing family history can help anticipate and prevent and treat eye disease. Sunglasses can help prevent damage and sunshine cataracts, or even macular degeneration, solar retinitis, and some corneal dystrophies. Patients can wear protective goggles when performing yard work or other dangerous activities to prevent injuries.

But what happens when something DOES go wrong?

Dry eyes are not healthy eyes. In addition to the general reduction in quality of life from stinging and burning, dry eyes are prone to eye infections. Tears protect our eyes. Yet 4.88 million people over 50 struggle with dry eyes, and many younger people do, too. Other risks from chronic dry eyes include:

  • corneal ulcers, sores  on your cornea. Sometimes these develop after an injury where dry eyes prevent healing. Debris can scratch the eye, causing a bacterial infection. If not treated, ulcers can get worse and cause scarring, and partial or complete blindness.
  • conjunctivitis. This is where the clear layer of cells over the white part of the eye, and the inner surface of the eyelids, become inflamed, causing discomfort and redness.
  • inability to wear contact lenses. As anyone who has ever worn contact lenses knows, a dry eye is a nightmare surface for a contact lens, which will stick to the eyeball. A gritty sensation and discomfort are also common.
  • headaches, including migraines.
  • light sensitivity.

How do you know if you need a remedy for dry eyes?

According to the Mayo Clinic, you may have dry eyes if you regularly experience the following symptoms:

  • a scratchy sensation in your eyes;
  • stringy mucus in or around the eyes;
  • light sensitivity;
  • poor night vision;
  • difficulty wearing contact lenses;
  • blurred vision or eye fatigue.

In addition, surprisingly, you might have very watery eyes. Your body responds to the irritation of dry eyes by making them water.

If you have these symptoms, you should see a physician for a remedy for dry eyes. You may have keratoconjunctivitis sicca, or the inability to produce enough tears.

What causes decreased tears?

You might have dry eyes due to:

  • aging;
  • Sjogren’s syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, or lupus;
  • thyroid disorders;
  • vitamin deficiencies;
  • medication;
  • tear gland damage.

Your doctor will test for the composition of your tears to make sure they are balanced correctly and measure the quantity of tears.

What can amniotic membrane do for dry eyes?

An exciting use of regenerative medicine is for people suffering from chronic dry eye, due to age or often after laser or other eye surgery. Amniotic membrane has been used for eyes for over two decades.

There are products on the market that can help some patients by encouraging the eye to produce tears. These products generally are used daily indefinitely, and possibly help only 15% of patients. For some people, a one-time treatment using amniotic membrane may be the answer.

Amniotic membrane as a remedy for dry eyes is obtained from consenting mothers after birth and comes from the placenta that was used to nourish the baby. Donors are screened for transmissible diseases and the amniotic membrane is treated with antibiotics after collection.

There are two ways amniotic membranes can be used for dry eyes. The first is as a surgical graft. The amniotic membrane acts as a scaffold for skin to grow on to.

The second way an amniotic membrane can be used for dry eyes is as a biological corneal bandage. In this case, the amniotic membrane is not absorbed, but is removed after healing. The device supports the corneal-healing process.

In either case, the amniotic membrane is glued or sutured in place.

When used as a biological bandage, the amniotic membrane can be inserted in the doctor’s office or in a hospital setting during other procedures.

Not only can the bandage act as a barrier, it can reverse scarring.  The patient experiences reduced pain from the friction involved in blinking. The membrane is absorbed into the eye. The amniotic membrane also can promote regeneration of corneal nerves.  Some studies have also found amniotic membranes to be antimicrobial.

Amniotic membranes can be used to improve visual acuity, optimize the eye’s surface before cataract surgery, and can be used for other conditions such as ulcerative keratitis, acute Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and neurotropic disease.

Cryopreserved or dehydrated?

The FDA has approved cryopreserved amniotic membrane for use in eyes. You might be wondering why a “fresh” amniotic membrane wouldn’t be used as a remedy for dry eyes. This is because it presents a significant risk of disease transmission, whereas using processing methods may nearly eliminate this risk while preserving effectiveness of the tissue graft.

There are two methods primarily used to preserve amniotic membrane for use as a remedy for dry eyes. First, in cryopreservation, as the term implies, the tissue is quickly frozen. The integrity of the tissue and its biochemical functions are preserved.

Although there are some drawbacks to cryopreservation, for example that the product must be refrigerated and has a limited shelf life, it is preferable to the second method of preservation, dehydration. With dehydration, the proteins in the amniotic membrane might be denatured and the membrane can even lose some of its function and structure, defeating the purpose. One of the benefits of cryopreserved amniotic membrane is that it retains hyaluronic acid, a lubrication, while there are concerns that the dehydrated form does not. Furthermore, the extracellular matrix components found in cryopreserved amniotic membrane regulate and promote regenerate healing processes and tissue remodeling. Although studies are unclear, it appears that dehydrated may not have the same anti-inflammatory benefits as cryopreserved.


We take many steps to ensure our eyes continue to serve us throughout our lives; we shouldn’t settle for dry, unhealthy eyes. If you are suffering from the symptoms mentioned above, see a doctor to see if you suffer from dry eye disease, and if amniotic membranes can be your remedy. Amniotic membrane for dry eyes is the new horizon in healthy eyes.